Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of significant accounting policies

v3.22.2
Summary of significant accounting policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of significant accounting policies Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of PSB and its subsidiaries, including the OP and its consolidated joint ventures. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. The financial statements are presented on an accrual basis in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information, instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for audited financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ended December 31,
2022. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Consolidation and equity method of accounting
We consider entities to be Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”) when they have insufficient equity to finance their activities without additional subordinated financial support provided by other parties, or the equity holders as a group do not have a controlling financial interest. A limited partnership is also generally considered a VIE if the limited partners do not participate in operating decisions. We consolidate VIEs when we are the primary beneficiary, generally defined as having (i) the power to direct the activities most significantly impacting economic performance and (ii) either the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE.
We account for investments in entities that are not VIEs that we have significant influence over, but do not control, using the equity method of accounting and for investment in entities that we control, we consolidate. We do not consider the joint venture entity that owns Highgate at The Mile a VIE, but we consolidate the entity as the Company has control over the joint venture. See Note 3 for more information relating to this joint venture arrangement.
We have a 98.2% interest in Brentford at The Mile, a planned 411- unit multifamily apartment complex (the “Brentford Joint Venture”). An unrelated real estate development company (the “JV Partner”) holds the remaining 1.8% interest. Based on management’s analysis of the joint venture and certain related agreements, we determined Brentford Joint Venture is a VIE because (a) Brentford Joint Venture does not have sufficient equity at risk to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support from other parties, and (b) there are no substantive kick-out rights. We have also concluded we have control over the Brentford Joint Venture as we (i) are the managing member of the Brentford Joint Venture, (ii) have designated decision making power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of the Brentford Joint Venture, and (iii) have a 98.2% economic interest in the investment. Thus, we determined that we are the primary beneficiary of Brentford Joint Venture. As such, we consolidate the Brentford Joint Venture, and the related land and development costs of $77.2 million and $59.9 million were included in land and building held for development, net on our consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The assets of the Brentford Joint Venture may only be used to settle obligations of the Brentford Joint Venture and the creditors of the Brentford Joint Venture have no recourse to the general credit of the Company. See Note 4 for more information relating to this joint venture arrangement.
PS, the sole limited partner in the OP, has no power to direct the activities of the OP. PSB is the primary beneficiary and has control over the OP as it has the exclusive responsibility under the Operating Partnership Agreement to manage and conduct the business of the OP. Accordingly, we consider the OP a VIE and consolidate it. Substantially all of our assets and liabilities are held by the OP.
Noncontrolling interests
Noncontrolling interests represent (i) PS’s noncontrolling interest in the OP through its ownership of 7,305,355 common partnership units, (ii) the JV Partner’s 5.0% interest in our consolidated joint venture that owns Highgate at The Mile, and (iii) the JV Partner’s 1.8% interest in our consolidated joint venture formed to develop Brentford at The Mile. See Note 7 for further information on noncontrolling interests.
Use of estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Financial instruments
The methods and assumptions used to estimate the fair value of financial instruments are described below. The Company has estimated the fair value of financial instruments using available market information and appropriate valuation methodologies. Considerable judgment is required in interpreting market data to develop estimates of market value. Accordingly, estimated fair values are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that could be realized in current market exchanges. The Company determines the estimated fair value of financial assets and liabilities utilizing a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to a fair value measurement are considered to be observable or
unobservable in a marketplace. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions. This hierarchy requires the use of observable market data when available.
The following is the fair value hierarchy:
Level 1—quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2—quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets; and
Level 3—fair value measurements derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.
Financial assets that are exposed to credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents and receivables. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents, which consist primarily of money market investments, are only invested in entities with an investment grade rating. Receivables are balances due from various customers. Balances that the Company expects to become uncollectible are written off. Due to the short period to maturity of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, other assets and accrued and other liabilities, the carrying values as presented on the consolidated balance sheets are reasonable estimates of fair value.
Carrying values of the Company’s Credit Facility (as defined in Note 6) approximate fair value. The characteristics of the Credit Facility, market data and other comparative metrics utilized in determining these fair values are “Level 2” inputs.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash per the consolidated statements of cash flow to the corresponding financial statement line items in the consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):
December 31,
2021 2020
Consolidated balance sheets
Cash and cash equivalents $ 27,074  $ 69,083 
Restricted cash included in Land and building held for development, net 1,088  1,088 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at the end of the period $ 28,162  $ 70,171 
June 30,
2022 2021
Consolidated balance sheets
Cash and cash equivalents $ 173,460  $ 115,965 
Restricted cash included in Land and building held for development, net 1,088  1,088 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at the end of the period $ 174,548  $ 117,053 
Intangible assets/liabilities
When we acquire real estate facilities, an intangible asset is recorded in other assets for leases where the in-place rent is higher than market rents, and an intangible liability is recorded in other liabilities where the market rents are higher than the in-place rents. The amounts recorded are based upon the present value (using a discount rate which reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired) of such differences over the lease term and such amounts are amortized to rental income over the respective remaining lease term. As of June 30, 2022, the value of above-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible assets of $0.5 million, net of $11.8 million of accumulated amortization, and the value of below-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible liabilities of $2.2 million, net of $13.4 million of accumulated amortization. As of December 31, 2021, the value of above-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible assets of $0.6 million, net of $11.6 million of accumulated amortization, and the value of below-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible liabilities of $2.8 million, net of $13.1 million of accumulated amortization.
Additionally, when we acquire real estate facilities, the value of in-place lease intangible (i.e., customer lease-up costs) is recorded in other assets and is amortized to depreciation and amortization expense over the respective remaining lease term. As of June 30, 2022, the value of acquired in-place lease intangible resulted in net intangible assets of $4.5 million, net of $12.0 million of accumulated amortization. As of December 31, 2021, the value of acquired in-place leases resulted in net intangible assets of $6.0 million, net of $10.5 million of accumulated amortization.
As of June 30, 2022, the value of our right-of-use (“ROU”) assets relating to our existing ground lease arrangements, included in “other assets” on our consolidated balance sheets and the corresponding liability included under “accrued and other liabilities,” was $1.3 million, net of $0.4 million of accumulated amortization. As of December 31, 2021, the value of our ROU assets and related liability relating to our ground lease arrangements was $1.3 million, net of $0.3 million of accumulated amortization. The ground leases expire in 2029 and 2030 and do not have options to extend. As of June 30, 2022, the remaining lease terms were 7.3 years and 7.6 years. Lease expense for these ground leases is recognized in the period the applicable costs are incurred, and the monthly lease amount for these operating leases is constant and without contractual increases throughout the remaining terms.
Real estate facilities
Real estate facilities are recorded at cost. Property taxes, insurance, interest, and costs essential to the development of property for its intended use are capitalized during the period of development. Direct costs related to the renovation or improvement of the properties are capitalized. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Expenditures that are expected to provide benefit for a period greater than two years are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful life. Buildings and improvements are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which generally range from five to 30 years. Transaction costs, which include tenant improvements and lease commissions, for leases with terms greater than one year are capitalized and depreciated over the corresponding lease term.
Property held for development
Property is classified as held for development when it is no longer used in its original form and it will be developed to an alternate use. Property held for development is not depreciated.
Property held for sale
Property is classified as held for sale when all of the following criteria for a plan of sale have been met: (i) management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the property; (ii) the property is available for immediate sale in its present condition, subject only to terms that are usual and customary; (iii) an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell have been initiated; (iv) the sale of the property is probable and is expected to be completed within one year; (v) the property is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value; and (vi) actions necessary to complete the plan of sale indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn. Depreciation of assets ceases upon designation of a property as held for sale.
If the disposal of a property represents a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on our operations or financial results, such as (i) a major line of business, (ii) a major geographic area, (iii) a major equity method investment, or (iv) other major parts of an entity, then the operations of the property, including any interest expense directly attributable to it, are classified as discontinued operations in our consolidated statements of operations, and amounts for all prior periods presented are reclassified from continuing operations to discontinued operations. The disposal of an individual property generally will not represent a strategic shift and therefore will typically not meet the criteria for classification as a discontinued operation.
Sales of real estate facilities
Sales of real estate facilities are not part of our ordinary activities, and as a result, we consider such sales as contracts with non-customers. We recognize sales of real estate when we have collected payment and the attributes of ownership, such as possession and control of the asset, have been transferred to the buyer. If a contract for sale includes obligations to provide goods or services to the buyer, an allocated portion of the contract price is recognized as revenue as the related goods or services are transferred to the buyer.
Evaluation of asset impairment
We evaluate our real estate and finite-lived intangible assets for impairment each quarter. We review current activities and changes in the business conditions of all of our long-lived assets to determine the existence of any triggering events or impairment indicators requiring an impairment analysis. If triggering events or impairment indicators are identified, we review an estimate of the future undiscounted cash flows, including, if necessary, a probability-weighted approach if multiple outcomes are under consideration.
Upon determination that an impairment has occurred, a write-down is recognized to reduce the carrying amount of the asset to its estimated fair value. If an impairment charge is not required to be recognized, the recognition of depreciation or amortization is adjusted prospectively, as necessary, to reduce the carrying amount of the asset to its estimated disposition value over the remaining period that the asset is expected to be held and used. We may adjust the depreciation of properties that are expected to be disposed of or redeveloped prior to the end of their useful lives.
No impairment charges were recorded in any period presented herein.
Asset impairment due to casualty loss
It is our policy to record losses due to physical damages during the accounting period in which they occur, while the amount of monetary assets to be received from the insurance policy, if any, is recognized when receipt of insurance recoveries is probable. Losses, which are reduced by the related probable insurance recoveries, are recorded as costs of operations on the consolidated statements of income. Anticipated proceeds in excess of recognized losses would be considered a gain contingency and recognized when the contingency related to the insurance claim has been resolved. Anticipated recoveries for lost rental income due to property damages are also considered to be a gain contingency and recognized when the contingency related to the insurance claim has been resolved.
No material casualty losses were incurred in any period presented herein.
Stock compensation
Share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, are recognized as stock compensation expense in the Company’s consolidated statements of income based on their grant date fair values, except for performance-based grants, which are accounted for based on their fair values at the beginning of the service period. See Note 11.
Accrued and other liabilities
Accrued and other liabilities consist primarily of rents prepaid by our customers, trade payables, property tax accruals, accrued payroll and contingent loss accruals when probable and estimable, as well as the intangible liabilities discussed above. We disclose the nature of significant losses not accrued that are reasonably possible of occurring and, if estimable, a range of exposure. The fair value of accrued and other liabilities approximate book value due to the short period until settlement.
Other assets
Other assets are comprised primarily of prepaid expenses, as well as the intangible assets discussed above.
Revenue recognition
We recognize the aggregate rent to be collected (including the impact of escalators and concessions) under leases ratably throughout the non-cancellable lease term on a “straight-line” basis, commencing when the customer takes control of the leased space. Cumulative straight-line rent recognized in excess of amounts billed per the lease term is presented as “deferred rent receivable” on our consolidated balance sheets. The Company presents reimbursements from customers for real estate taxes and other recoverable operating expenses under a single lease component presentation as the timing and pattern of transfer of such reimbursements are the same as base rent, and the combined single component of such leases are classified as operating leases. Accordingly, the Company recognizes such variable lease payments resulting from the reimbursements from customers for real estate taxes and other recoverable operating expenses as rental income in the period the applicable costs are incurred. Property management fees are recognized in the period earned as other income.
The Company monitors the collectability of its receivable balances, including deferred rent receivable balances, on an ongoing basis. The Company writes off uncollectible customer receivable balances, including deferred rent receivable balances, as a reduction to rental income in the period such balances are no longer probable of being collected. Therefore, recognition of rental income is limited to the lesser of the amount of cash collected or rental income reflected on a “straight-line” basis, plus any accruable variable lease payments for those customer receivable balances.
The Company recognized revenue from its lease arrangements aggregating to $110.9 million and $109.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and $223.7 million and $217.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. This revenue consisted primarily of rental income from operating leases and the related variable lease payments resulting from reimbursements of property operating expenses. Base rental income was $83.1 million and $83.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and $167.9 million and $165.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Variable lease payments, consisting primarily of reimbursement of property operating expenses, were $27.8 million and $25.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and $55.8 million and $51.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
In April 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued a Staff Question-and-Answer (“Lease Modification Q&A”) to respond to frequently asked questions about accounting for lease concessions related to the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic. Under existing lease guidance, an entity would have to determine, on a lease by lease basis, if a lease concession contained a lease modification which would be accounted for under the lease modification framework, or if a lease concession was an enforceable right or obligation that existed in the original lease, which would be accounted for outside the lease modification framework. The Lease Modification Q&A provides that, to the extent that cash flow after the lease concessions are substantially the same, or less than, the cash flow previously required by the existing lease, an entity is not required to evaluate each contract to determine whether a concession provided by a lessor to a lessee in response to the COVID-19 pandemic is a lease modification. Instead, an entity can account for such lease concessions either (i) as if they were part of the enforceable rights and obligations of the parties under the existing lease contract; or (ii) as a lease modification. Based on the Lease Modification Q&A, an entity is not required to account for all lease concessions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic under one elected option; however, the entity is required to apply the elected option consistently to leases with similar characteristics and in similar circumstances.
In accordance with the Lease Modification Q&A, the Company has elected to account for lease concessions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic as a lease modification if the cash flow after these lease concessions is substantially the same, or less than, the cash flow previously required by the existing lease. The Company records rent deferrals and rent abatements in deferred rent receivable in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and will recognize these amounts over the remainder of the respective lease terms. For lease concessions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that modified the terms and substantially changed the underlying cash flow of the existing lease for the remaining term, the Company also accounts for such concessions as a lease modification.
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company entered into rent relief agreements consisting of $6.2 million of rent deferrals and $1.6 million of rent abatements. As of June 30, 2022, the 289 current customers that received rent relief account for 9.30% of rental income. Also as of June 30, 2022, the Company had collected $5.7 million of rent deferral repayment, representing 99.8% of the amounts scheduled to be repaid through June 30, 2022. An additional $0.5 million of rent deferral repayment is scheduled to be repaid thereafter. The duration and severity of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy are uncertain and are likely to impact collectability of certain customers’ rent receivable balances in the future. The Company has taken into account the current financial condition of its tenants, including consideration of COVID-19 impacts, in its estimation of its uncollectible accounts and deferred rents receivable at June 30, 2022. The Company is closely monitoring the collectability of such rents and will adjust future estimations as appropriate as further information becomes known.
General and administrative expense
General and administrative expense includes executive and other compensation, corporate office expenses, professional fees, and other such costs that are not directly related to the operation of our real estate facilities.
Income taxes
We have elected to be treated as a REIT, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). As a REIT, we do not incur U.S. federal corporate income tax if we distribute all of our “REIT taxable income” each year, and if we meet certain organizational and operational requirements. We believe we have met these REIT requirements for all periods presented herein. Accordingly, we have recorded no U.S. federal corporate income tax expense related to our “REIT taxable income.”
We recognize tax benefits of uncertain income tax positions that are subject to audit only if we believe it is more likely than not that the position would ultimately be sustained assuming the relevant taxing authorities had full knowledge of the relevant facts and circumstances of our positions. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we did not recognize any tax benefit for uncertain tax positions.
Accounting for preferred equity issuance costs
We record preferred equity issuance costs as a reduction to paid-in capital on our consolidated balance sheets at the time the preferred securities are issued and reflect the carrying value of the preferred equity at its redemption value. An additional allocation of income is made from the common stockholders to the preferred stockholders in the amount of the original issuance costs, and we reclassify the redemption value from equity to liabilities, when we call preferred stock for redemption, with such liabilities relieved once the preferred stock is redeemed.
Net income per share of common stock
Notwithstanding the presentation of income allocations on our consolidated statements of income, net income is allocated to (a) preferred stockholders, for distributions paid or payable, (b) preferred stockholders, to the extent redemption value exceeds the related carrying value (“Preferred Redemption Allocation”), (c) our joint venture partner in proportion to its percentage interest in the joint ventures, to the extent the consolidated joint ventures produce net income or loss during the period and (d) restricted stock unit (“RSU”) holders, for non-forfeitable dividends paid adjusted for participation rights in undistributed earnings. The remaining net income is allocated to the common partnership units and our common stockholders, respectively, based upon the pro-rata aggregate number of units and stock outstanding.
Basic and diluted net income per share of common stock are each calculated based upon net income allocable to common stockholders, divided by (i) in the case of basic net income per share of common stock, weighted average common stock and (ii) in the case of diluted net income per share of common stock, weighted average common stock adjusted for the impact of stock compensation awards outstanding (see Note 10) using the treasury stock method.
The following table sets forth the components of our basic and diluted net income per share that are not reflected on the face of our consolidated statements of income, including the allocation of income to common stockholders and common partnership units, the percentage of weighted average common stock and common partnership units outstanding, as well as basic and diluted weighted average common stock outstanding (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,
Six Months Ended June 30,
2022   2021 2022   2021
Calculation of net income allocable to common stockholders
Net income $ 107,520  $ 70,050  $ 208,665  $ 117,557 
Net (income) loss allocated to
Preferred stockholders based upon distributions (9,580) (12,047) (19,160) (24,093)
Noncontrolling interests—joint venture (9) (8)
Restricted stock unit holders (475) (314) (998) (478)
Net income allocable to common stockholders and noncontrolling interests—common units 97,456  57,696  188,499  92,991 
Net income allocation to noncontrolling interests—common units (20,379) (12,101) (39,429) (19,510)
Net income allocable to common stockholders $ 77,077  $ 45,595  $ 149,070  $ 73,481 
Calculation of common partnership units as a percentage of common stock equivalents
Weighted average common stock outstanding 27,630  27,531  27,618  27,513 
Weighted average common partnership units outstanding 7,305  7,305  7,305  7,305 
Total common stock equivalents 34,935  34,836  34,923  34,818 
Common partnership units as a percentage of common stock equivalents 20.9  % 21.0  % 20.9  % 21.0  %
Weighted average common stock outstanding
Basic weighted average common stock outstanding 27,630  27,531  27,618  27,513 
Net effect of dilutive stock compensation—based on treasury stock method using average market price 92  101  89  98 
Diluted weighted average common stock outstanding 27,722  27,632  27,707  27,611 
Segment reporting
The Company has two operating segments: (i) the acquisition, development, ownership and management of commercial real estate and (ii) the acquisition, development, ownership and management of multifamily real estate, but has only one reportable segment as the multifamily segment does not meet the quantitative thresholds necessary to require reporting as a separate segment.
Reclassifications
We combined all non-cash rental income items into “straight-line rent and amortization of lease intangibles, net” within the operating activities section of our consolidated statements of cash flows for all periods presented herein.