Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of PSB and its subsidiaries, including the OP and our consolidated joint venture. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in the consolidated financial statements. The financial statements are presented on an accrual basis in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information, instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for audited financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ended December 31, 2019. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Consolidation and equity method of accounting
We consider entities to be Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”) when they have insufficient equity to finance their activities without additional subordinated financial support provided by other parties, or the equity holders as a group do not have a controlling financial interest. A limited partnership is also generally considered a VIE if the limited partners do not participate in operating decisions. We consolidate VIEs when we are the primary beneficiary, generally defined as having (i) the power to direct the activities most significantly impacting economic performance and (ii) either the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE.
We account for investments in entities that are not VIEs that we have significant influence over, but do not control, using the equity method of accounting and for investment in entities that we control, we consolidate. On January 1, 2018, we began to consolidate our joint venture due to changes to the joint venture agreement that gave the Company control of the joint venture. See Note 3 for more information on this entity.
PS, the sole limited partner in the OP, has no power to direct the activities of the OP. We are the primary beneficiary of the OP. Accordingly, we consider the OP a VIE and consolidate it. Substantially all of our assets and liabilities are held by the OP.
Noncontrolling interests represent (i) PS’s noncontrolling interest in the OP through its ownership of 7,305,355 common partnership units and (ii) a third-party 5.0% interest in our consolidated joint venture owning a 395-unit multifamily apartment complex. See Note 6 for further information on noncontrolling interests.
Use of estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
The methods and assumptions used to estimate the fair value of financial instruments are described below. The Company has estimated the fair value of financial instruments using available market information and appropriate valuation methodologies. Considerable judgment is required in interpreting market data to develop estimates of market value. Accordingly, estimated fair values are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that could be realized in current market exchanges. The Company determines the estimated fair value of financial assets and liabilities utilizing a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to a fair value measurement are considered to be observable or unobservable in a marketplace. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions. This hierarchy requires the use of observable market data when available. The following is the fair value hierarchy:
Level 1—quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2—quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations in which significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets; and
Level 3—fair value measurements derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.
Financial assets that are exposed to credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents and receivables. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents, which consist primarily of money market investments, are only invested in entities with an investment grade rating. Receivables are comprised of balances due from various customers. Balances that the Company expects to become uncollectible are written off. Due to the short period to maturity of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, other assets and accrued and other liabilities, the carrying values as presented on the consolidated balance sheets are reasonable estimates of fair value.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash per the consolidated statements of cash flow to the corresponding financial statement line items in the consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):
Carrying values of the Company’s Credit Facility (as defined in Note 5) approximate fair value. The characteristics of these financial instruments, market data and other comparative metrics utilized in determining these fair values are “Level 2” inputs.
Real estate facilities
Real estate facilities are recorded at cost. Property taxes, insurance, interest and costs essential to the development of property for its intended use are capitalized during the period of development. Direct costs related to the renovation or improvement of the properties are capitalized. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. Expenditures that are expected to benefit a period greater than two years are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful life. Buildings and improvements are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which generally range from to 30 years. Transaction costs, which include tenant improvements and lease commissions, for leases with terms greater than one year are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives.
Property held for sale or development
Real estate is classified as held for sale when the asset is being marketed for sale and we expect that a sale is likely to occur in the next 12 months. Real estate is classified as held for development when it is no longer used in its original form and likely that it will be developed to an alternate use. Property held for development or sale is not depreciated.
When we acquire real estate facilities, an intangible asset is recorded as other assets for leases where the in-place rent is higher than market rents, and an intangible liability is recorded as other liabilities where the market rents are higher than the in-place rents. The amounts recorded are based upon the present value (using a discount rate which reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired) of such differences over the lease term and such amounts are amortized to rental income over the respective remaining lease term. As of September 30, 2019, the value of above-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible assets of $1.4 million, net of $10.4 million of accumulated amortization and the value of below-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible liabilities of $2.5 million, net of $11.2 million of accumulated amortization. As of December 31, 2018, the value of above-market in-place rents resulted in net
intangible assets of $1.8 million, net of $10.0 million of accumulated amortization and the value of below-market in-place rents resulted in net intangible liabilities of $1.8 million, net of $10.8 million of accumulated amortization.
Additionally, when we acquire real estate facilities, the value of in-place leases (i.e., customer lease-up costs) is recorded as other assets and is amortized to depreciation and amortization expense over the respective remaining lease term. As of September 30, 2019, the value of acquired in-place leases resulted in net intangible assets of $6.3 million, net of $3.1 million of accumulated amortization. As of December 31, 2018, the value of acquired in-place leases resulted in net intangible assets of $4.7 million, net of $1.3 million of accumulated amortization.
Evaluation of asset impairment
We evaluate our real estate and finite-lived intangible assets for impairment each quarter. If there are indicators of impairment and we determine that the carrying value of the asset is not recoverable from estimated future undiscounted cash flows to be received through the asset’s remaining life (or, if earlier, the expected disposal date), we record an impairment charge to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the asset’s estimated fair value or net proceeds from expected disposal.
No impairment charges were recorded in any period presented herein.
Share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, are recognized as stock compensation expense in the Company’s consolidated statements of income based on their grant date fair values, except for performance-based grants, which are accounted for based on their fair values at the beginning of the service period. See Note 10.
Accrued and other liabilities
Accrued and other liabilities consist primarily of rents prepaid by our customers, trade payables, property tax accruals, accrued payroll and contingent loss accruals when probable and estimable, as well as the intangible liabilities discussed above. We disclose the nature of significant unaccrued losses that are reasonably possible of occurring and, if estimable, a range of exposure.
Other assets are comprised primarily of prepaid expenses, as well as the intangible assets discussed above.
We recognize the aggregate rent to be collected (including the impact of escalators and concessions) under leases ratably throughout the non-cancellable lease term on a “straight-line” basis, commencing when the customer takes control of the leased space. Cumulative straight-line rent recognized in excess of amounts billed per the lease term is presented as “deferred rent receivable” on our consolidated balance sheets. We present reimbursements from customers for real estate taxes and other recoverable operating expenses under a single lease component presentation as the timing and pattern of transfer of such reimbursements are the same as the lease term, and the combined single component of such leases are classified as operating leases. Accordingly, we recognize such variable lease payments resulting from the reimbursements from customers for real estate taxes and other recoverable operating expenses as rental income in the period the applicable costs are incurred.
The Company monitors the collectability of its receivable balances, including deferred rent receivable balances, on an ongoing basis. The Company writes off uncollectible customer receivable balances, including deferred rent receivable balances, in the period such receivable balances are deemed uncollectible. Therefore, recognition of rental income is limited to the lesser of the amount of cash collected or rental income reflected on a “straight-line” basis, plus any accruable variable lease payments for those customer receivable balances deemed uncollectible.
Property management fees are recognized in the period earned as other income.
Costs incurred in acquiring customers (primarily tenant improvements and lease commissions) are capitalized and amortized over the lease period for leases with terms greater than one year.
Sales of real estate facilities
Sales of real estate facilities are not part of our ordinary activities, and as a result, we consider such sales as contracts with non-customers. We recognize sales of real estate when we have collected payment and the attributes of ownership, such as possession and control of the asset, have been transferred to the buyer. If a contract for sale includes obligations to provide goods or services to the buyer, an allocated portion of the contract price is recognized as revenue as the related goods or services are transferred to the buyer.
General and administrative expense
General and administrative expense includes executive and other compensation, corporate office expenses, professional fees, state income taxes and other such costs that are not directly related to the operation of our real estate facilities.
We have elected to be treated as a REIT, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). As a REIT, we do not incur federal income tax if we distribute substantially all of our “REIT taxable income” each year, and if we meet certain organizational and operational rules. We believe we have met these REIT requirements for all periods presented herein. Accordingly, we have recorded no federal income tax expense related to our “REIT taxable income.”
We recognize tax benefits of uncertain income tax positions that are subject to audit only if we believe it is more likely than not that the position would ultimately be sustained assuming the relevant taxing authorities had full knowledge of the relevant facts and circumstances of our positions. As of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we did not recognize any tax benefit for uncertain tax positions.
Accounting for preferred equity issuance costs
We record issuance costs as a reduction to paid-in capital on our consolidated balance sheets at the time the preferred securities are issued and reflect the carrying value of the preferred equity at its redemption value. An additional allocation of income is made from the common shareholders to the preferred shareholders in the amount of the original issuance costs, and we reclassify the redemption value from equity to liabilities when we call preferred shares for redemption.
Net income per common share
Notwithstanding the presentation of income allocations on our consolidated statements of income, net income is allocated to (a) preferred shareholders, for distributions paid or payable, (b) preferred shareholders, to the extent redemption value exceeds the related carrying value, (c) our joint venture partner, to the extent the consolidated joint venture produce net income or loss during the period and (d) restricted stock unit (“RSU”) holders, for non-forfeitable dividends paid adjusted for participation rights in undistributed earnings. The remaining net income is allocated to the common partnership units and our common shareholders, respectively, based upon the pro-rata aggregate number of units and shares outstanding.
Basic and diluted net income per common share are each calculated based upon net income allocable to common shareholders, divided by (i) in the case of basic net income per common share, weighted average common shares and (ii) in the case of diluted income per share, weighted average common shares adjusted for the impact of stock compensation awards outstanding (Note 10) using the treasury stock method.
The following tables set forth the calculation of the components of our basic and diluted income per share that are not reflected on the face of our consolidated statements of income, including the allocation of income to common shareholders and common partnership units, the percentage of weighted average shares and common partnership units, as well as basic and diluted weighted average shares (in thousands):
We have two operating segments: (i) the acquisition, development, ownership and management of commercial real estate and (ii) the acquisition, development, ownership and management of multifamily real estate, but have one reportable segment as the multifamily segment does not meet the quantitative thresholds necessary to require reporting as a separate segment.
We have reclassified our divisional vice presidents’ compensation costs totaling $457,000 and $1.5 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, from cost of operations into general and administrative expense on our consolidated statements of income in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 in order to conform to the current periods’ presentation. Certain reclassifications have been made to the consolidated financial statements for 2018 in order to conform to the 2019 presentation, including reclassifying assets held for sale as of September 30, 2019 from “real estate facilities, at costs” totaling $128.1 million as of December 31, 2018 into “properties held for sale, net” on our consolidated balance sheets.
Recently issued accounting standards
In May 2014 and February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued two Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”s), ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (the “Revenue Standard”), and ASU 2016-02, Leases (the “Lease Standard”). These standards apply to substantially all of our revenue generating activities, as well as provide a model to account for the disposition of real estate facilities to non-customers.
The Lease Standard directs how we account for payments from the elements of our leases that are generally fixed and determinable at the inception of the lease (“Fixed Lease Payments”) while the Revenue Standard directs how we account for the non-lease components of our lease contracts, primarily expense reimbursements (“Non-Lease Payments”).
The Lease Standard requires us to identify Fixed Lease Payments and Non-Lease Payments of a lease agreement and governs the recognition of revenue for the Fixed Lease Payments. Revenue related to Non-Lease Payments under our lease arrangements is subject to the Revenue Standard effective upon adoption of the Lease Standard. See further discussion below on Fixed Lease Payments and Non-Lease Payments.
Under the Lease Standard, a set of practical expedients for implementation, which must be elected as a package and for all leases, was elected as part of our adoption of the Lease Standard. These practical expedients include (i) relief from re-assessing whether an expired or existing contract meets the definition of a lease, (ii) relief from re-assessing the classification of expired or existing leases at the adoption date and (iii) allowing previously capitalized initial direct leasing costs to continue to be amortized.
We adopted the Lease Standard on its effective date of January 1, 2019. In addition to the package of practical expedients noted above, we also elected the practical expedient not to allocate the total consideration to Fixed Lease Payments and Non-Lease Payments based on their relative standalone selling prices. This practical expedient allows lessors to elect a combined single component presentation if (i) the timing and pattern of the revenue recognition for the Fixed Lease Payments and Non-Lease Payments are the same, and (ii) the combined single component of the lease would continue to be classified as an operating lease. We have assessed and believe the two conditions have been met for Non-Lease Payments as (i) the timing and pattern of transfer of the Fixed Lease Payments and Non-Lease Payments are the same, and (ii) the combined single component of the lease would be classified as an operating lease. The adoption of the Leasing Standard did not result in a material impact to our consolidated financial statements.
We recognized revenue from our lease arrangements aggregating $108.1 million and $103.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and $323.7 million and $309.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. This revenue consisted primarily of rental income from operating leases and the related variable lease payments resulting from reimbursements of property operating expenses. Rental income was $84.1 million and $80.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and $250.7 million and $240.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Variable lease payments were $24.0 million and $22.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and $73.0 million and $69.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The Lease Standard provides two approaches to account for uncollectible customer receivable balances, and the respective deferred rent receivables balances: (i) an impairment model approach or (ii) a reserve approach in accordance to ASU 450-20, Contingencies - Loss Contingencies (“Contingencies - Loss Contingencies Standard”). Under the impairment model, recognition of rental income is limited to the lesser of the amount of cash collected or rental income reflected on a “straight-line” basis, plus any accruable variable lease payments for those customer receivable balances deemed uncollectible. After completing the impairment model approach, a lessor may also choose to apply the reserve approach. Under the reserve approach, a lessor records a reserve for a portion of the receivable balances, based on historical data, for uncollectible amounts. A lessor that chooses the reserve approach will have to apply the guidance from both the Lease Standard and Contingencies - Loss Contingencies Standard. The Company has elected the impairment model approach to account for its uncollectible customer receivable balances, and the respective deferred rent receivable balances. The Company’s uncollectible receivable balances policy is consistent with the impairment model approach as the Company writes off uncollectible receivable balances in the period the amounts are deemed uncollectible. Therefore, our rental income is limited to the lesser of the amount of cash collected or rental income reflected on a “straight-line” basis, plus any accruable variable lease payments for those customer receivable balances deemed uncollectible.
Costs to execute leases
The Lease Standard also provides updated guidance on the requirements for the capitalization of the incremental costs incurred in executing leases, such as legal fees and commissions. Under the Lease Standard, any costs that would have been incurred regardless of successful lease execution, such as allocated costs of internal personnel, are to be expensed and may not be capitalized. As we have historically not capitalized any such costs, the adoption of the Lease Standard did not result in a material impact to our consolidated financial statements.
Under the Lease Standard, lessees are required to apply a dual approach by classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle whether the lease is effectively a finance purchase of the leased asset by the lessee. This classification determines whether the lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. For most leases with a term of greater than 12 months, in which we are the lessee, the present value of future lease payments is recognized on our balance sheet as a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and related liability. On January 1, 2019, the Company recorded a ROU asset of $1.7 million, included in “other assets” on our consolidated balance sheets and a corresponding liability of $1.7 million under “accrued and other liabilities”, relating to our existing ground lease arrangements. These operating leases were recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. As these leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company used its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available in determining the present value of future payments. The discount rate used to determine the present value of these operating leases’ future payments was 4.20%. These ground leases expire in and and do not have an option to extend. As of September 30, 2019, the remaining lease terms ranged from 10.0 years to 10.3 years. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized in the period the applicable costs are incurred as monthly rent for these operating leases are constant without increases through the remaining terms of these leases. The adoption of the Lease Standard did not result in a material impact to our consolidated financial statements from the initial recognition of each lease liability or from the pattern of recognition subsequent to adoption.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef